ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY                                                      

Unit-I      Analysis of Water Quality parameters 

Standards of water for drinking purposes, purification of water for domestic uses, methods of sterilization (in brief). Methods of water softening: lime soda process, zeolite and ion exchange resin process.

Origin of waste water, types water pollutants and their effects. Sources of water pollution-domestic, industrial, parameters for analysis-pH, colour, turbidity, total solids, conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate. Measurements of DO, BOD and COD.

Unit-II    Heavy metal pollution

Heavy metal pollution, sources,
Public health significance of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, nickel, iron and mercury.
USPH water quality standards.


Eutrophication and restoration of water bodies
Types of eutrophication their sources.
Domestic sewage as source of nutrients, sewage treatment. Analysis of nitrates & phosphates in water. Effects of eutrophication and their control.


Global Environmental Problems

  1. Ozone depletion, Acid rain, smog.
  2. Global warming & climatic change.
  3. Bhopal Gas Tragedy & its impact on environment, Chernobly disaster.
  4. Brief idea about radioactive pollution, thermal pollution, & their effects & control.


Industrial wastes & treatment processes

Characteristics of industrial water, types of industrial water, treatment of industrial wastes of some industries like paper industry, soap industry, metal industry & petroleum industry.

 Analytical Chemistry I

Unit I: Chromatographic Methods

An introduction to chromatographic methods,paper, thin layer and column chromatography ,theory of chromatography ,classification of chromatographic techniques, retention time, relationship between retention time and partition coefficient, the rate of solute migration, differential migratin rates, band broadening, capillary electrophoresis.

Unit II: GC and HPLC

Instrumentation of GC and HPLC ,applications in qualitative and quantitative analysis, comparison of GC and HPLC ,pyrolytic gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, super critical fluid chromatography, affinity chromatography.

Unit III:Kinetic methods of Analysis

Rates of chemical reaction, rate laws, first and pseudo first order reactions, second order reactions,catalysed reactions, determination of reaction rates, applications of kinetic methodsw, a brief idea of flow injection analysis.

Unit IV:Colorimetery and Spectrophotometery

Introduction, theory of spetriphotometery and colorimetery, limitations of Beer’s law, classification of methods of colour measurement, instrumentation single beam and double beam, photometric error, applications of spectrophotometery to inorganic and organig compounds(quantitative calculations), near IR spectrophotometery, spectrophotometeric titrations.

Unit V:Infrared Spectroscopy

Theory of infrared absorption, vibrational models, vibrational coupling, instrumentation, dispersive and non dispersive instrument, qualitative applications.A brief idea of Raman Spectroscopy.

Analytical Chemistry-II

Unit-I: Electro analytical Methods of Analysis Fundamentals

A brief idea of electrode processes. The ideal polarized electrode, Faradiac reaction, variables in electrochemical cells, factors affecting electrode reaction rate and current, Decomposition potential, back potential and voltage.
Constant current and controlled potential electrogravimetry, separation of metals.

Unit-II: Potentiometry

Introduction, Reference electrodes, Indicator electrodes, Ion-selective electrodes and their applications in chemical analysis, Instrumentation and measurement of cell unit, Direct Potentiometry, potentiometric titrations, Appliecations.

Unit-III: Polarography

Basis principle, Direct current polarography, different kinds of currents, reversible and irreversible waves, Pulse and A.C. polargraphy, applications of polarography, Elementary idea of striping voltammetry, Amperometric titrations and cyclic voltammetry.

Unit-IV: Conductometry and Coulometry

Conductometry as an analytical tool, Applications of direct conductometric measurements, Basis of conductometric titrations, applications of conductometry titrations, coulometry at controlled potential, coulometry at constant current, applications.

Unit-V: Atomic Absorption and emission Sopectroscopy.

Theory of Atomic Spectroscopy, the origin of spectral transition, the populations of energy levels, the factors influencing spectral width, atomic absorption spectroscopy, instrumentation, interferences, application, various non-flame emission sources, applications, comparison of atomic emission and atomic absorption methods. 

The department contributes to the following branches of B.Tech:

  1. I & II Semester : Civil Engg.
                                 Computer Science & Engg.
                                 Electrical Engg.
                                 Electronics & Communication Engg.
                                 Information Technology
                                 Mechanical Engg.




LUBRICANTS: Introduction, Classification of lubricants (Liquid lubricants, Solid lubricants, Semi - solid lubricants), Mechanism of lubrication (Hydrodynamic, boundary and extreme pressure). Functions of lubricants, Synthetic lubricants, additives for lubricating oil, Lubricating emulsions, Bio- degradable lubricants, Physical and chemical properties of lubricants, Testing of lubricants, Application of lubricants, Selection of lubricants. Hydraulic oils, compressor oils, turbine oils.
FUELS: Definition & classification of fuels and their comparison, calorific values, Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and their significance, Clinker formation, Pulverized coal as fuel and coke and its uses, Petroleum distillation, Cracking and cracked gasoline, Varieties of fuel oils, Their properties and uses, Knocking, anti – knocking compounds (Octane & Cetane number), Simple problems based on combustion of solid and liquid and gaseous fuels (excluding energy calculations), Gaseous fuels (Bio gas, Producer gas, water gas and LPG), Propellants for rockets, their composition and characteristics.

CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: Introduction of Chromatography, Classification of Chromatography Methods Chromatographic Mechanisms, Terminology Used in Chromatography, Chromatographic Performance, Isolation of Separated Components (Elution), Gas Chromatography, Column Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Comparison of Chromatographic Techniques.
Introduction to Spectroscopy, Electromagnetic spectrum, Symbols, Spectrophotometer. Ultra-Violet, and Visible Spectroscopy, The Absorption law, Theory of ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, Types of electronic transitions, Chromophore, Auxochrome, Absorption and intensity shifts, Instrumentation, Applications of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

WATER: Source and impurities, alkalinity, pH, hardness of water. Inter relationship between alkalinity and hardness, degree of hardness, Standards of water for drinking purposes, Water analysis (Physical, chemical and bacteriological tests).
Purification of water for domestic uses, methods of sterilization (in brief). Methods of water softening: lime-soda process, zeolite and ion exchange resin process. Scale formation: causes, effects and prevention. Caustic embrittlement, priming, foaming, boiler corrosion and deaeration. Simple numerical problems on water softening based on lime soda process and water analysis.

MATERIALS: Polymer: Introduction and classification of polymers, Effects of polymer structure on properties, Plastics-thermoplasic and thermosetting, Moulding of plastics,Types of polymerization: Addition, Condensation, Co-polymerization, and mechanism of Addition polymerization, Introduction to polymer composites, Vulcanization, Natural and Synthetic rubbers, Silicons, Polyurethanes, Kevlar, Elestomers and Bio-polymers.

Cement: Introduction and raw materials, Types of cement, Methods of manufacturing cements, Wet process, Dry process, Characteristics of constitutional compound in cement. Chemistry of setting and hardening of cement, Additives, Properties and testing of cements, Types of Portland cement and its derivatives, Other types of cements, Mortars and concretes.

Reference Books:
i. A Text Book of Engineering Chemistry by Jain and Jain
ii. A Text Book of Engineering Chemistry by S.S. Dara
iii. A Text Book of Engineering Chemistry by Shashi Chawla
iv. Engineering Chemistry by B.K. Sharma



Quantitative Analysis

Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

Estimation of percentage of iron using potassium dichromate by internal indicator method.

Estimation of percentage of iron using potassium dichromate by external indicators.

Iodometric titration of copper sulphate by hypo.

Iodometric titration of potassium dichromate by hypo.

Water Analysis

Determination of alkalinity, hydroxyl, carbonate and bicarbonate in water.

Determination of total hardness in water using soap or EDTA titrations.

Determination of salinity of water sample by Mohr’s method.

Lubricant Testing

Determination of viscosity of lubricating oil with change of temperature by

a. Red Wood Viscometer Number 1
b. Red Wood Viscometer Number 2

Determination of Flash and Fire point of liquid fuel and lubricants by

a. Cleavelands Open Cup Method
b. Abels Flash Point Apparatus
c. Pensky Martins Flash Point Apparatus.

Reference Books:

  1. Practical Chemistry by S.S. Dara
  2. Practical Engineering Chemistry by Mittal & Mittal


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